These laws are an extension of OHM‘s law and are used for calculating current and voltage in a network of circuits. Kirchhoff formulated these laws when he was a student at the University of Konisburg.
Kirchhoff also showed that objects that are good emitters of heat are also good absorbers. This is Kirchhoff’s law of radiation.
‘Daimler was convinced that steam power was outdated’
In 1885 he perfected the first petroleum-injected internal combustion engine and produced the first motorcycle and the first four-wheeled petrol driven car.
The foundation for Daimler’s work had already been laid in the creation of two- and four-stroke gas-fuelled internal combustion engines by early pioneers Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900), Alphonse Beau de Rochas (1815-93) and Nikolaus August Otto (1832-91).
Although liquid petroleum was well-known, it had been of no use in developing the internal combustion engine because the liquid could not be compressed in the same manner as gas. The four-stroke engine awaited the development of the carburetor, which converted the liquid petroleum into a thin spray, which could be compressed and sparked.
In 1885 Karl Benz (1844-1929) designed and constructed a three-wheel vehicle powered by a 0.75 horsepower engine.