1832 – Germany
‘The electrical flux through a closed surface is proportional to the sum of the electric charges within the surface’
An electric field may be pictured by drawing lines of force. The field is stronger where these lines crowd together, weaker where they are far apart. Electrical flux is a measure of the number of electric field lines passing through an area.
Gauss’ law describes the relationship between electric charge and electric field. It is an elegant restatement of COULOMB‘s law.
- Maths in a minute: Clever sums (plus.maths.org)