EMPEDOCLES of AGRIGENTUM (Sicily) (c.494 – c.434 BCE)

‘The four roots of all things are: AIR, WATER, FIRE and EARTH’

Two forces exist – LOVE and STRIFE.

The view of Empedocles developed the monists’ ideas that all substances are derived from a single source, into the concept of objects consisting of different compositions of these four basic elements.
The materials of the natural world being wrought from different blends of the four elemental principles, brought about through the eternal conflict between Love and Strife; their waxing and waning applied to cause mixing when Love is dominant, or separation by Strife.
Empedocles argued that this was the cause of transformation not just of the elements but also of the lives of people and cultures.

Popular mythology described how Aphrodite fashioned the human eye out of the four elements, held together by Love. She kindled the fire of the eye at the hearth fire of the universe, so that it would act like a lantern, transmitting the fire of the eye out into the world and making sight possible.
Empedocles realised that there must be more to sight than this, and that the darkness of night is caused by the body of the Earth getting in the way of light from the sun.

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