– throughout the Middle Ages, astrology and astronomy were closely linked in both the Western and the Arabic worlds.
Although astrology was used for prediction, pre-modern astrology required a substantial command of mathematics and an informed astronomical knowledge.
PTOLEMY – ‘ The Almagest ’ how the planets move; ‘ Tetrabiblos ’ what effect the qualities of the planets (Mars – hot & dry, Moon – cold & wet [affect on the tides]) and their relative positions will have.
Belief that the influence of the planets may have an effect on earthly health and other matters (disease and character traits).
Tables of positions of planets became developed from the Babylonian originals in the Islāmic world.
Alphonsine tables produced for King Alphonso X of Castile in 1275.
Prognostication repeatedly condemned by the Church as influence of the planets denies the concept of free will.
Refutation of astrology is difficult owing to its complexity.