1621 – Holland

‘During refraction of light, the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence (

i) and refraction (r) is a constant equal to the refractive index of the medium’

In equation form: n_{1}sin_{i} = n_{2} sin_{r}

where n_{1} and n_{2} are the respective refractive indices of the two media.

The refractive index of a substance is a measure of its ability to bend light. The higher the number the better light is refracted. The refractive index of diamond, 2.42, is the highest of all gems.

Refraction is the change in direction of a ray of light when it crosses the boundary between two media. It happens because light has different speeds in different media. A ray of light entering a medium where the speed of light is less (from air to water, for example) bends towards the perpendicular to the boundary of the two media. It bends away from the perpendicular when it crosses from water to air. Refraction was known to ancient Greeks, but Snell, a Dutch mathematician, was the first to study it.

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