1911 – Holland
‘At very low temperatures, some materials conduct electricity without any resistance: that is, virtually without any loss of energy’
These materials are called superconductors. In 1908 Kamerlingh-Onnes found that metals such as mercury, lead and tin become superconductors at very low temperatures.
It is now known that about 24 elements and hundreds of compounds become superconductors near absolute zero.
Superconducting technology advanced little until 1986, when scientists developed a metallic ceramic compound that becomes superconductive at around the temperature of liquid nitrogen – minus 196 degrees Celsius.
- James Dewar (aps.org)